The super-abundant, pure Good that is the One cannot fail to produce an ordered and good cosmos that does not succeed him in time. Sina was Persian by ethnicity. Ibn Sina was well ahead of his time, and contributing to many fields ranging from philosophy to astronomy, but there is no doubt that his works have been invaluable to Medicine. Ethics isone of the subdivisions of axiology. Avicenna wrote extensively on early Islamic philosophy, including two treatises named "Logic" and "Metaphysics". It begins with a discussion of the Platonic, Aristotelian, and Neo-Platonic influences on Ibn Sina’s practical philosophy, as well as the influence of Farabi, and of Islamic religious and Galen (129 - 200 A.D.), and ancient Persian, Mesopotamian and Indian medicine. His name is Ali Al Husayn Ibn-Sina, but he is also known as Avicenna and he is arguably the most important philosopher in the history of Islam. However, the influence of his psychology and theory of knowledge upon William of Auvergne and Albertus Magnus have been noted. At a very young age, he was taught the Koran together with much literature. The metaphysical system of Ibn Sina has been described in terms of “one of the most comprehensive and detailed in the history of philosophy.” The content includes “an underlying Farabian motif, namely, that the quest after philosophical knowledge is for the sake of perfecting one’s soul and hence for the attainment of happiness in this world and the next” (M. E. Marmura, “Avicenna iv. Avicenna (Ibn Sina): Logic . United Kingdom, The Latin Avicenna (mainly sections of al-Shifa’), Selected Works of Avicenna Available in European Language Translation, General Introductions to Avicenna and His Thought, A study of the impact of Avicennan psychology upon the scholastics focusing on five key issues, Compare it with this useful and critical commentary by the theologian Ibn Taymiyya (d. 1328) – Yahya Michot, ‘A Mamluk theologian’s commentary on Avicenna’s. First, theologians such as al-Ash‘ari and his followers were adamant in denying the possibility of secondary causality; for them, God was the sole agent and actor in all that unfolded. He is also known as al-Sheikh al-Rais (Leader among the wise men) a title that was given to him by his students. This argument does raise an objection, which may also be levelled at Descartes: how do we know that the knowing subject is the self? Ibn Sina (Avicenna) (980-1037) is one of the foremost philosophers of the golden age of Islamic tradition that also includes al-Farabi and Ibn Rushd. While some of the mystical commentators of Avicenna have relied upon his pseudo-epigraphy (such as some sort of Persian Sufi treatises and the Mi‘rajnama), one ought not to throw the baby out with the bath water. Ibn-i Sina studied medicine with a doctor named Kuşyar. Marmura, Michael. Reportedly, he has written 450 works of which 240 have … Ibn Sina’s work grew so much esteem that the elite educated classes adopted the study of philosophy within the madrassah educational system largely due to his influence. Nevertheless the major works of Avicenna, especially The Cure and Pointers, became the basis for the philosophical curriculum in the madrasa. Ibn Sina (Avicenna, 980-1037 AD) writes about cosmology and metaphysics in Ilāhiyyāt of Kitāb al-Šifā’ (known in English as the Metaphysics of the Book of the Healing or the Book of the Cure). Logic is a critical aspect of, and propaedeutic to, Avicennan philosophy. The vision was to bridge the growing gap between the health care needs of a rapidly expanding population of under-served families and the ability of … His father, who may have been Ismaili, was a local Samanid governor. Ibn-Sina Islam's most renowned philosopher-scientist (980-1037), Ibn-Sina was a court physician in Persia, and wrote two of history's greatest works, The Book of Healing, a compendium of science and philosophy, and The Canon of Medicine, an encyclopedia based on … Philosophy — In Our Time. It is a distinction that is arguably latent in Aristotle although the roots of Avicenna’s doctrine are best understood in classical Islamic theology or kalam. 4.8 / 5. The other two encyclopaedias were written later for his patron the Buyid prince ‘Ala’ al-Dawla in Isfahan. For a rationally possible case of existence, it's called contingent. Two terms traditionally used in the Islamic world are sometimes translated as philosophy—falsafa (literally: "philosophy"), which refers to philosophy as well as logic, mathematics, and physics; and Kalam (literally "speech"), which refers to a rationalist form of Islamic theology. In his early years, he was educated by his father, and he had a remarkable memory and an ability to learn which amazed the scholars who met in his father's home. 9. From al-Farabi, Avicenna inherited the Neoplatonic emanationist scheme of existence. The philosophy of Ibn Sina is essentially Aristotelian, like other Arab philosophers. Ibn Sina; the father of modern medicine … and the unsung hero of science! An excellent study that locates the origins of Avicennan thought in what he calls the ‘Ammonian synthesis’ in Late Antiquity and then explains the development of Avicennan metaphysics. Avicenna’s epistemology is predicated upon a theory of soul that is independent of the body and capable of abstraction. Ibn Sina and Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī engaged in a written debate, with Abu Rayhan Biruni mostly criticizing Aristotelian natural philosophy and the Peripatetic school, while Avicenna and his student Ahmad ibn 'Ali al-Ma'sumi respond to Biruni's criticisms in writing. In particular, he is credited with: the introduction of systematic experimentation and quantification into the study of physiology; the discovery of the contagious nature of infectious diseases and the introduction of quarantine to limit the spread of contagious diseases; the introduction of experimental medicine and the establishment of rules and principles for testing the effectiveness of new drugs and medications (which still form the basis of clinical pharmacology and modern clinical trials); the discovery of the concept of syndromes; the identification of the importance of dietetics and the influence of climate and environment on health; the pioneering of aromatherapy treatment; the anticipation of the existence of micro-organisms; and early work on psychology, neuropsychiatry, psychophysiology and psychosomatic medicine (he first described numerous neuropsychiatric conditions such as hallucination, insomnia, mania, nightmare, melancholia, dementia, epilepsy, paralysis, stroke, vertigo and tremor). The argument runs as follows: There is existence, or rather our phenomenal experience of the world confirms that things exist, and that their existence is non-necessary because we notice that things come into existence and pass out of it. Contrary to the classical Muslim theologians, he rejected creation ex nihilo and argued that cosmos has no beginning but is a natural logical product of the divine One. The cosmos succeeds God merely in logical order and in existence. Ibn Sina's independent thought was served by an extraordinar y intelligence … We have details of much of Avicenna's early life from his own autobiography. An old and contentious presentation of Avicenna as a polymath rooted in the mystical experience of God. Avicenna developed his own system of Logic, known as Avicennian Logic, as an alternative to Aristotelian Logic, and by the 12th Century it had replaced Aristotelian Logic as the dominant system in the Islamic world. Abu Ali al-Husayn ibn Abdallah ibn al-Hasan ibn Ali ibn Sina is the full name of the most transcendental figure in philosophy and medicine in the Middle Ages, usually shortened to Ibn Sina (ابن سينا) or Avicenna. He also wrote some literary allegories about whose philosophical value 20th and 21st century scholarship is vehemently at odds. ‘Roots of an aporia in later Islamic philosophy: the existence-essence distinction in the philosophies of Avicenna and Suhrawardi’. This article is a brief review of Ibn Sina’s practical philosophy. Suspended in such a state, he cannot affirm the existence of his body because he is not empirically aware of it, thus the argument may be seen as affirming the independence of the soul from the body, a form of dualism. Sources on his life range from his autobiography, written at the behest of his disciple ‘Abd al-Wahid Juzjani, his private correspondence, including the collection of philosophical epistles exchanged with his disciples and known as al-Mubahathat (The Discussions), to legends and doxographical views embedded in the ‘histories of philosophy’ of medieval Islam such as Ibn al-Qifti’s Ta’rikh al-hukama (History of the Philosophers) and Zahir al-Din Bayhaqi’s Tatimmat Siwan al-hikma. Submit Rating . Includes translations of texts and raises the interesting question of what is ‘Islamic’ about Avicenna’s ‘Islamic philosophy’. The man and his age The Sheikh al-Ra’is Sharaf al-Mulk Abu cAli al-Husayn b. cAbd Allah b. al-Hasan b. cAli Ibn Sina (known in Europe as Avicenna) was born in the village of Afshana in the vicinity of Avicennian Philosophy. The main significance of the Latin corpus lies in the interpretation for Avicennism andAvicennism, in particular forregarding his doctrines on the nature of the soul and his famous existence-essence distinction (more about that below) andbelow), along with the debates and censure that they raised in scholastic Europe, in particular in ParisEurope. This, of course, is the same as the God of religion. While he was imprisoned near Hamadan, Avicenna formulated his famous "Floating Man" thought experiment to demonstrate human self-awareness and the substantiality of the soul. As a philosopher and a devout Muslim, he tried to reconcile the rational philosophy of Aristotelianism and Neo-Platonism with Islamic theology. Ibn Sina was well ahead of his time, and contributing to many fields ranging from philosophy to astronomy, but there is no doubt that his works have been invaluable to Medicine. Abu Ali al-Hussein Abdullah ibn al-Hassan ibn Ali Ibn Sina (called Avicenna in the West) was born in a village near Bukhara in 980 C.E. An interpretation from a continental philosophical approach. The problem of course arises when one tries to make sense of an essential definition in a real, particular world, and when one’s attempts to complete the syllogism by striking on the middle term is foiled because one’s ‘intuition’ fails to grasp the middle term. This is a combination of the Ontological Argument and Cosmological Argument for the existence of God (see the section on Philosophy of Religion), and a very early use of the method of a priori proof, utilizing intuition and reason alone. The divine is pure, simple and immaterial and hence cannot have a direct epistemic relation with the particular thing to be known. The first, a Compendium on the Soul (Maqala fi’l-nafs), is a short treatise dedicated to the Samanid ruler that establishes the incorporeality of the rational soul or intellect without resorting to Neoplatonic insistence upon its pre-existence. Tibb philosophy not only recognizes that the body, mind and soul are interconnected, but also the relationship between the microcosm (man) and the macrocosm (the universe) and that both health and disease have a physical, mental, emotional, and spiritual influences. According to Gutas it was written in Isfahan in the early 1030s; according to Michot, it dates from an earlier period in Hamadan and possibly Rayy. In the Islamic world, his impact was immediate and led to what Michot has called “la pandémie avicennienne.” When al-Ghazali led the theological attack upon the heresies of the philosophers, he singled out Avicenna, and a generation later when the Shahrastani gave an account of the doctrines of the philosophers of Islam, he relied upon the work of Avicenna, whose metaphysics he later attempted to refute in his Struggling against the Philosophers (Musari‘at al-falasifa). He was inspired by Aristotelian philosophy and was a peripatetic philosopher. In earth sciences, his hypotheses on the geological causes of mountains came very close to the truth many centuries before it was proven. The Autobiography, written at a time when Avicenna had reached his philosophical maturity, touches upon a number of issues that he felt were highly significant in his formation as a thinker and accordingly point the way to his approach to philosophy and his philosophical aims and orientation. Was Avicenna a mystic? Avicennian Logic had an influence on early medieval European logicians such as Albertus Magnus, although Aristotelian Logic later became more popular in Europe with the strong influence of Averroës. Awais Ahmad 2. Ibn Sina Avicenna 1. Second, the age-old problem was discussed: if God is good, how can evil exist? Regarded as one of the most influential thinkers and writers of the Islamic Golden Age, Ibn Sina wrote extensively on philosophy of ethics and metaphysics, medicine, astronomy, alchemy, geology psychology and Islamic theology. Ibn Sina’s influence also opened an entirely new way of thinking about the role of wisdom hikmah in relation to the divine. What is the nature of the philosophy of Avicenna? Avicenna (AKA Ibn Sina or Ibn Seena or, in full, Abu Ali al-Hussain Ibn Abdallah Ibn Sina) (980 - 1037) was a Persian philosopher, physician and polymath in the Medieval period (Islam's Golden Age).. Avicenna, Muslim physician, the most famous and influential of the philosopher-scientists of the medieval Islamic world. Due to the success of Avicenna's reconciliation of Aristotelianism and Neo-Platonism with Islamic Kalam, Avicennism became the leading school of Islamic philosophy by the 12th Century. Thereby, Ibn Sina represents a lively illustration of the meeting between philosophy and education, for the educator and the philosopher are both faced with the same problems: truth, goodness, the nature of the world, the meaning of knowledge and human nature, and so on. particulars. He was the first to successfully classify simple machines (lever, pulley, screw, wedge and windlass) and their combinations. But while this does not deny the existence of evil in this world of generation and corruption, some universal evil does not exist because of the famous Neoplatonic definition of evil as the absence of good. A study of the impact of Avicennan psychology upon the scholastics focusing on five key issues. The second most influential idea of Avicenna is his theory of the knowledge. A classic restatement of Nasr’s mystical understanding of Avicenna. The classic example for this innovative sense is that of the sheep perceiving the wolf and understanding the implicit danger. Parviz Morewedge, ‘Philosophical analysis of Ibn Sina’s essence-existence distinction’. A pioneering work which remains a highly useful research tool. "Ibn Sina (Arabic), also known as Avicenna (Latin) and Abu Ali Sina (Persian) was the most original and systematic Muslim philosopher. ‘Ibn Sina’s Oriental Philosophy’, in S. H. Nasr and Oliver Leaman (eds). He was one of the most learned men of his time in a wide variety of subjects, and is often considered one of the greatest thinkers and scholars in history. The human intellect at birth is rather like a tabula rasa, a pure potentiality that is actualized through education and comes to know. For a period he was court physician and vizier at Hamadan (west-central Iran), despite threats of banishment by the emir, and at one point he was forced into hiding and even spent some time as a political prisoner. One of the most problematic implications of Avicennan epistemology relates to God’s knowledge. He then left again ‘through necessity’ in 1012 for Jurjan in Khurasan to the south in search no doubt for a patron. Ibn Sina (Avicenna) (980-1037) is one of the foremost philosophers of the golden age of Islamic tradition that also includes al-Farabi and Ibn Rushd.He is also known as al-Sheikh al-Rais (Leader among the wise men) a title that was given to him by his students. In the later Iranian tradition, Avicenna’s thought was critically distilled with mystical insight, and he became known as a mystical thinker, a view much disputed in late 20th and early 21st century scholarship. Avicenna divides science into three parts: 1/ top science or metaphysical science of things that are not torn from the field; 2/ or less than the science knowledge of things in this area and is the physical. In the Islamic sciences (‘ulum), he wrote a series of short commentaries on selected Qur’anic verses and chapters that reveal a trained philosopher’s hermeneutical method and attempt to come to terms with revelation. Late 20th century studies have attempted to locate him within the Aristotelian and Neoplatonic traditions. For example, he argues in The Cure that both logic and metaphysics share a concern with the study of secondary intelligibles (ma‘qulat thaniya), abstract concepts such as existence and time that are derived from primary concepts such as humanity and animality. Sina is also regarded as the father of medieval medicine science. He also contributed inventively to the development of inductive logic, mainly through his medical writings. Here are some highlights of his ideas: Sense perception with the involvement of the 5 external and internal senses (see [3.3.3]) is the starting… Thereafter, he started studying the work of Aristotle, which yanked him into philosophy. Razi and Al-Farabi provided innovations in the field of medicine and philosophy. His philosophical works were one of the main targets of al-Ghazali’s attack on philosophical influences in … He argued that, as an infinite chain is impossible, the chain as a whole must terminate in a being that is wholly simple, self-sufficient and one, whose essence is its very existence (i.e. More importantly, logic is a key instrument and standard for judging the validity of arguments and hence acquiring knowledge. In 1022, on the death of the Buwayhid prince Shams al-Daula who he was serving in Hamadan and the ensuing political chaos, Avicenna dramatically escaped out of the city in the dress of a Sufi ascetic. Primarily a metaphysical philosopher of being who was concerned with understanding the self’s existence in this world in relation to its contingency, Ibn Sina’s philosophy is an attempt to construct a coherent and comprehensive system that accords with the religious exigencies of Muslim culture. As a strict believer in Empiricism, he refuted the study of astrology as being conjectural rather than empirical (and anyway conflicting with orthodox Islam). There he first met his disciple and scribe Juzjani. The idea of "essence precedes existence" is a concept which dates back to Ibn Sina (Avicenna) and his school of Avicennism as well as Shahab al-Din Suhrawardi and his Illuminationist philosophy. His philosophical works were one of the main targets of al-Ghazali’s attack on philosophical influences in … Avicenna (pers. Learn more about Avicenna’s life and accomplishments in this article. However, his metaphysics owes much to the “Amonnian” synthesis of the later commentators on Aristotle and discussions in legal theory and kalam on meaning, signification and being. The second is his first major work on metaphysics, Philosophy for the Prosodist (al-Hikma al-‘Arudiya) penned for a local scholar and his first systematic attempt at Aristotelian philosophy. Ibn Sina’s Natural Philosophy. Actually, this whole trend of thought is inspired by the argument of Plotinus for the separateness of the mind from the body. (Something which if existed, did not exist prior, can cease to exist or come up in another possible way). In Epistemology, Avicenna developed the concept of the tabula rasa (the idea that individual human beings are born with no innate or built-in mental content), which strongly influenced later Empiricists like John Locke, and the nature versus nurture debate in modern philosophy and psychology. Therefore, the chain of contingent existents must culminate in and find its causal principle in a sole, self-subsistent existent that is Necessary. First published Fri Jul 29, 2016; substantive revision Mon Oct 12, 2020. Critical editions of the Arabic text have been published in Cairo, 1952-83, originally under the supervision of I. Madkour; Hayy ibn Yaqdhan a Persian myth. Two questions that were current were resolved through his theory of existence. Almost half of his works are versified, his poems appearing in both Arabic and Persian. He began his two most important medical works ("The Book of Healing" and "The Canon of Medicine") during his time at Hamadan. This resulted in the famous condemnation by al-Ghazali who said that Avicenna’s theory amounts to a heretical denial of God’s knowledge of particulars. ‘Plotting the course of Avicenna’s thought’. He was particularly noted for his contributions in the fields of Aristotelian philosophy and medicine. Avicenna (AKA Ibn Sina or Ibn Seena or, in full, Abu Ali al-Hussain Ibn Abdallah Ibn Sina) (980 - 1037) was a Persian philosopher, physician and polymath in the Medieval period (Islam's Golden Age). Ibn Sina wrote extensively on early Islamic philosophy, especially the subjects logic, ethics, and metaphysics, including treatises named Logic and Metaphysics. By law of bivalence there exist only 3 states of existence, Rationally possible/Rationally must/Rationally Impossible. The clearest problem with Avicenna’s proofs lies in the famous Kantian objection to ontological arguments: is existence meaningful in itself? He acted as a physician and administrator by day, while every evening he gathered students around him for philosophical and scientific discussion. The quest to understand being qua being subsumes the philosophical notion of God. But in that state he cannot doubt that his self exists because there is a subject that is thinking, thus the argument can be seen as an affirmation of the self-awareness of the soul and its substantiality. Around the turn of the millennium, he moved to Gurganj in Khwarazm, partly no doubt to the eclipse of Samanid rule after the Qarakhanids took Bukhara in 999. Existents in this world exist as something, whether human, animal or inanimate object; they are ‘dressed’ in the form of some essence that is a bundle of properties that describes them as composites. Avicenna was born in around 980 in Afshana, a village near Bukhara in Transoxiana. This was particularly the case in Paris, where Avicennism waslater proscribed in 1210. Avicenna (Ibn Sina) of Persia A physician, philosopher, and scientist, he was the author of 450 books on many subjects, many on philosophy and medicine. Divine providence ensures that the world is the best of all possible worlds, arranged in the rational order that one would expect of a creator akin to the demiurge of the Timaeus. A key investigation of Avicennan psychology as a quest for an Islamic answer to the problem of the soul’s journey beyond this life and the persistence of personal identity. No votes so far! Abu ‘Ali al-Husayn ibn Sina is better known in Europe by the Latinized name “Avicenna.” He is probably the most significant philosopher in the Islamic tradition and arguably the most influential philosopher of the pre-modern era. His commentaries on the works of Aristotle often "corrected" the philosopher, encouraging a lively debate in the spirit of ijtihad (a term used in Islamic law describing independent interpretation of the sources). God). He developed a theory of knowledge based on four faculties: sense perception, retention, imagination and estimation. In the physical sciences, he is considered the father of the fundamental concept of momentum (part of his elaborate theory of motion), and was the first to employ an air thermometer to measure air temperature in scientific experiments. On the age-old debate whether logic is an instrument of philosophy (Peripatetic view) or a part of philosophy (Stoic view), he argues that such a debate is futile and meaningless. A further work entitled al-Insaf (The Judgement) which purports to represent a philosophical position that is radical and transcends AristotelianisingAristotle’s Neoplatonism is unfortunately not extant, and debates about its contents are rather like the arguments that one encounters concerning Plato’s esoteric or unwritten doctrines. He asked his readers to imagine themselves suspended in the air, isolated from all sensations, even sensory contact with their own bodies. In these writings: He analyzes the subject with a strong emphasis on the role of the Prophet (not directly identified with Muhammad) in the creation of the political community. The notion of intuition is located itself by Gutas in Aristotle’s Posterior Analytics 89b10-11. Ibn Sina (980-1037) The Qanun is divided into five books (parts). The fourth sense is estimation or prehension (wahm) that translates the perceived image into its significance. He also studied the other treatises of the Aristot… Avicenna’s metaphysics is generally expressed in Aristotelian terms. Mayer, Toby. 150 of the articles we have are on philosophy … Avicenna (persisk: Abu Ali Husain ebn Abdallah Ebn-e Sina eller Ibn Sina, født ca 980 i Afshāna ved Bukhara, død juni 1037 i Hamadan) var en persisk astronom, filosof og poet. Ibn Sina, also known by his Latinized name in Europe as Avicenna, was a Persian philosopher and polymath, born in 980 CE. Ibn Sina; the father of modern medicine … and the unsung hero of science! But it is an argument relating to ideology and the ways in which modern commentators and scholars wish to study Islamic philosophy as a purely rational form of inquiry or as a supra-rational method of understanding reality. Submit Rating . Cruz Hernández, Miguel. Although an attempt by a contemporary philosopher to come to grips with the enduring contributions of Avicenna to philosophy, it suffers from some serious textual misreadings. Avicennan metaphysics became the foundation for discussions of Islamic philosophy and philosophical theology. Indeed, as we have seen divine existence is a cornerstone of his metaphysics. His most famous works are "The Book of Healing" (a vast philosophical and scientific encyclopedia) and "The Canon of Medicine" (a standard medical text at many Islamic and European universities up until the early 19th Century). His influence in medieval Europe spread through the translations of his works first undertaken in Spain. ‘Avicenna and the kalam’, Considers Avicenna’s debt to the metaphysics of. ‘Essence and existence in Avicenna’. A critical assessment of Gutas’s 1988 work. Life story. Votes 154. Avicenna’s metaphysics, although being highly deterministic because of his view of radical contingency, still insists of the importance of human and other secondary causality. A causal chain in reality must culminate in one un-caused cause because one cannot posit an actual infinite regress of causes (a basic axiom of Aristotelian science). For him, Avicennism is rooted in the rationalism of the Aristotelian tradition. Abu Ali al-Husayn ibn Abdallah ibn al-Hasan ibn Ali ibn Sina is the full name of the most transcendental figure in philosophy and medicine in the Middle Ages, usually shortened to Ibn Sina (ابن سينا) or Avicenna. His views on logic represent a significant metaphysical approach, and it could be argued generally that metaphysical concerns lead Avicenna’s arguments in a range of philosophical and non-philosophical subjects. But the question arises: how can we verify if a proposition is true? Tibb is a total system of healthcare, based on the original philosophical principles of medicine by Hippocrates, Galen and Ibn Sina. Islamic philosophy is a development in philosophy that is characterised by coming from an Islamic tradition. Conjunction, however, is episodic and only occurs to human intellects that have become adequately trained and thereby actualized. An excellent collection that includes insightful pieces on Avicennan physics and metaphysics. The first, in Persian rather than Arabic is entitled Danishnama-yi ‘Ala’i (The Book of Knowledge for ‘Ala’ al-Dawla) and is an introductory text designed for the layman. Tibb is a total system of healthcare, based on the original philosophical principles of medicine by Hippocrates, Galen and Ibn Sina. A pioneering study of the key aspects of Aristotelian(ising) psychological theories in Islamic philosophy focusing on Avicenna. The Ibn Sina Foundation was established in 2001 by a group of local physicians, business and healthcare professionals. An important corollary of this argument is Avicenna’s famous distinction between existence and essence in contingents, between the fact that something exists and what it is. Ibn Sina; He had the opportunity to benefit from the magnificent libraries in Balk, Hamedan, Khorasan, Rey and Isfahan. He is one of the most significant, physicians, intellectuals, writers and astronomers of the Golden Islamic era. Of particular significance for later debates and refutations is his notion that knowledge depends on the inquiry of essential definitions (hadd) through syllogistic reasoning. Ibn Sina (Persian: ابن سینا), also known as Abu Ali Sina (ابوعلی سینا), Pur Sina (پورسینا), and often known in the West as Avicenna (/ˌævɪˈsɛnə, ˌɑːvɪ-/; c. 980 – June 1037), was a Persian polymath who is regarded as one of the most significant physicians, astronomers, thinkers and writers of the Islamic Golden Age, and the father of early modern medicine. Avicenna wrote almost 450 treatises on a wide range of subjects, of which around 240 have survived (150 of these concentrate on philosophy and 40 on medicine). Furthermore, he is one of the most substantial philosophers of the pre-modern period. In the 20th and 21st centuries, Avicenna has been attacked by some contemporary Arab Muslim thinkers in search of a new rationalism within Arab culture, one that champions Averroes against Avicenna. Ibn Sina (Avicenna, 980-1037 AD) writes about political philosophy in the works Healing (Kita¯b al-Shifa¯ ’), Divisions (Fı¯ Aqsa¯m al-‘Ulu¯m al-‘Aqliyya) and Politics Kita¯b al-Siya¯sa). Ibn Sina (Avicenna) (980-1037) is one of the foremost philosophers of the golden age of Islamic tradition that also includes al-Farabi and Ibn Rushd. However, much of this material ought to be carefully examined and critically evaluated. Ibn Sina (Avicenna, 980-1037 AD) in Kitāb al-Išārāt and Remarks and Admonitions or Pointers presents his theory of causation. Ibn-Sina er særleg kjend for oppslagsverket Kitab al-shifa ('Lækje-boka') og l-Qanun fi al-tibb ('Medisin-kanonen'), eitt av dei fremste verka innan medisinsk historie They merely provide an explanation for the process of intellection. The Soul is immaterial, separated from the body, however, linked to it. Avicenna developed an early theory of the hypothetical syllogism as well as propositional calculus, an area of Logic not covered in the Aristotelianism tradition. The second, whose dating and interpretation have inspired debates for centuries, is al-Isharat wa’l-Tanbihat (Pointers and Reminders), a work that does not present completed proofs for arguments and reflects his mature thinking on a variety of logical and metaphysical issues. His early work "Compendium on the Soul" was dedicated to establishing that the rational soul or intellect is incorporeal and indestructible, without resorting to Neo-Platonic insistence on its pre-existence (i.e. (i) Kulliyyat, the General Principles of Medicine which includes philosophy of medicine, generalities of human body, anatomy, physiology,hygiene, treatment of diseases. Contingency argument Ibn Sina (Avicenna) Mutakalem. Based in Isfahan, he was widely recognized as a philosopher and physician and often accompanied his patron on campaign. He was also the first to describe the methods of agreement, difference and concomitant variation which are critical to inductive logic and the scientific method, which was essential to later scientific methodology. Learn more about Avicenna’s life and accomplishments in this article. Ibn-i Sina was born in 980 in Efşene, near Bukhara, in present-day Uzbekistan. In the Latin West, his metaphysics and theory of the soul had a profound influence on scholastic arguments, and as in the Islamic East, was the basis for considerable debate and argument. At the age of 10, Ibn Sina retained the Holy Quran. Beyond general physics (al-samāʿal-ṭabīʿī), the physical sciences are furtherdivided into various special sciences distinguished according toeither the kind of motion investigated or the kind of body treated.While Avicenna himself does not explicitly identify his decisionprocedure for dividing the special natural sciences, it is evidencedin the way that he divides up … Avicenna wrote his two earliest works in Bukhara under the influence of al-Farabi. It was solicited by Juzjani and his other students in Hamadan in 1016 and although he lost parts of it on a military campaign, he completed it in Isfahan by 1027. Ibn Sina (Avicenna, 980-1037 AD) elaborates on the Soul in the book De anima of the Shifā or Healing, according to which:. Early life He was born in around 370 (AH) / 980 (AD) in Afshana, his m other's home, a small city now part of Uzbekistan His father, a respected Ismaili scholar, was from Balkh now part of Afghanistan .He had his son very carefully educated at Bukhara. There are two methods to achieve this. They regarded Avicenna as the principal representative of philosophy in Islam. Some of his interpreters in Iran have answered in the positive, citing the lost work The Easterners that on the face of it has a superficial similarity to the notion of Ishraqi or Illuminationist, intuitive philosophy expounded by Suhrawardi (d. 1191) and the final section of Pointers that deal with the terminology of mysticism and Sufism. IBN SINA (AVICENNA). Avicenna (Ibn Sina) (c. 980-1037 C.E., or 375-428 of Hegira) is one of the most important philosophers and logicians in the Arabic world. Pines, Shlomo. Ibn Sina Avicenna 1. (375 of Hegira). A syllogistic inference draws a conclusion from two prepositional premises through their connection or their middle term. Sina argued against Aristotle and said atom is … University of Bristol The Samanid dynasty in Greater Khorasan a… How do we know that an experience of ours is veridical? The best study of Avicenna’s modal logic and his contributions to the field. He also learned philosophy, geometry and Indian calculus during his childhood and youth. Furthermore, he articulated a development in the philosophical enterprise in classical Islam away from the apologetic concerns for establishing the relationship between religion and philosophy towards an attempt to make philosophical sense of key religious doctrines and even analyse and interpret the Qur’an. Thus, he claimed to have mastered all the sciences by the age of 18 and entered into the service of the Samanid court of Nuh ibn Mansur (r. 976-997) as a physician. We will try to expose the philosophical s… God only knows kinds of existents and not individuals. It is sometimes rather difficult to see what the middle term is; thus when someone reflecting upon an inferential problem suddenly hits upon the middle term, and thus understands the correct result, she has been helped through intuition (hads) inspired by the active intellect. His logical works follow the curriculum of late Neoplatonism and comprise nine books, beginning with his version of Porphyry’s Isagoge followed by his understanding and modification of the Aristotelian Organon, which included the Poetics and the Rhetoric. He probably began to compose al-Shifa’ in 1014, and completed it in 1020.) Proceedings from a 1999 conference that brought together specialists on the Arabic and the Latin Avicenna and their legacies. This study attempts to present the educational aspects of an Ibn Sina, known in the west as Ibn Sina (370?-428H – 980?-1037 CE), considered by ancient and modern scholars alike as the most famous of the Muslim philosophers .Thus al-Dhahbi describes him as ‘the leader of Islamic philosophy’ .George Anawati has prepared a full bibliography of Ibn Sina’s writings . Awais Ahmad 2. In the early modern period in Iran, his metaphysical positions began to be displayed by a creative modification that they underwent due to the thinkers of the school of Isfahan, in particular Mulla Sadra (d. 1641). Contingents, as a mark of their contingency, are conceptual and ontological composites both at the first level of existence and essence and at the second level of properties. Sources on his life range from his autobiography, written at the behest of his disciple ‘Abd al-Wahid Juzjani, his private correspondence, including the collection of philosophical epistles exchanged with his disciples and known as al-Mubahathat (The Discussions), to legends and doxographical views embedded in the ‘histories of philosophy’ of medieval Islam such as Ibn al-Qifti’s Ta’rikh al-hukama (History of the Philosophers) and Zahir al-Din Bayhaqi’s Tatimmat Siwan al-hikma. This proof for the self in many ways prefigures by 600 years the Cartesian cogito and the modern philosophical notion of the self. Avicenna’s major work, The Cure, was translated into Latin in 12th and 13th century Spain (Toledo and Burgos) and, although it was controversial, it had an important impact and raised controversies inin medieval scholastic philosophy. Early life He was born in around 370 (AH) / 980 (AD) in Afshana, his m other's home, a small city now part of Uzbekistan His father, a respected Ismaili scholar, was from Balkh now part of Afghanistan .He had his son very carefully educated at Bukhara. He was one of the most learned men of his time in a wide variety of subjects, and is often considered one of the greatest thinkers and scholars in history. Apart from philosophy, Avicenna’s other contributions lie in the fields of medicine, the natural sciences, musical theory, and mathematics. Interprets ‘oriental’ to signify an Eastern alternative Peripatetism. Born in Afshana near Bukhara in Central Asia in about 980, he is best known as a polymath, as a physician whose major work the Canon (al-Qanun fi’l-Tibb) continued to be taught as a medical textbook in Europe and in the Islamic world until the early modern period, and as a philosopher whose major summa the Cure (al-Shifa’) had a decisive impact upon European scholasticism and especially upon Thomas Aquinas (d. 1274). Just two generations after him, al-Ghazali (d. 1111) and al-Shahrastani (d. 1153) in their attacks testify to the fact that no serious Muslim thinker could ignore him. Sajjad H. Rizvi has called Avicenna "arguably the most influential philosopher of the pre-modern era". While accompanying his patron on one of his many military campaigns (as his duties required), Avicenna was seized with a severe colic, which he was unable to check with his own remedies. A study that includes a translation of Avicenna’s. The Book of Knowledge was the basis of al-Ghazali’s later Arabic work Maqasid al-falasifa (Goals of the Philosophers). by Mehmet Aydin Published on: 14th January 2005. He was a Muslim Peripateticphilosopher influenced by Aristotelian … He was also a poet, an Islamic scholar and theologian. Born in Bukhara, Persia, he became physician and adviser to sultans and princes. Purchasing from these links helps to keep the website running, and I am grateful for your support! We will return to his epistemology later but first what can we say about his life? Be the first to rate this post. "Ibn Sina (Arabic), also known as Avicenna (Latin) and Abu Ali Sina (Persian) was the most original and systematic Muslim philosopher. After the death of the later in 1021, he once again sought a patron and became the vizier of the Kakuyid ‘Ala’ al-Dawla for whom he wrote an important Persian summa of philosophy, the Danishnama-yi ‘Ala’i (The Book of Knowledge for ‘Ala’ al-Dawla). Contingent things in this world come to be as mentally distinct composites of existence and essence bestowed by the Necessary. He also studied Logic and Metaphysics, partly on his own (he prided himself on being self-taught) but also receiving instruction from some of the best teachers of his day, including the famous mathematician Abu Abdallah al-Natili among others. See the additional sources and recommended reading list below, or check the philosophy books page for a full list. In particular, he is regarded by many as the father of early modern medicine. His disciples would call him "The Greatest Doctor", and "The Prince of Physicians". The third sense is the imaginative faculty (al-mutakhayyila) which combines images in memory, separates them and produces new images. 4.8 / 5. On the widespread hegemony of Avicennan philosophy in Islamic thought from the 12th Century. Avicenna developed a medical system that combined his own personal experience with that of Islamic medicine, the medical system of the Greek physicians Hippocrates (460 - 370 B.C.) Logic is the standard by which concepts—or the mental “existence” that corresponds to things that occur in extra-mental reality—can be judged and hence has both implications for what exists outside of the mind and how one may articulate those concepts through language. This proof from contingency is also sometimes termed “radical contingency.” Later arguments raged concerning whether the distinction was mental or real, whether the proof is ontological or cosmological. A solid presentation of the key ideas based on the most up-to-date research. Essences are thus existentially neutral in themselves. Ibn-Sina Islam's most renowned philosopher-scientist (980-1037), Ibn-Sina was a court physician in Persia, and wrote two of history's greatest works, The Book of Healing, a compendium of science and philosophy, and The Canon of Medicine, an encyclopedia based on the teachings of … He wrote about 240 articles on different subjects, 450 of which survive. His teacher, al-Natili, taught him Logic, starting with Prophyry's Isagoge. He managed to reach Hamadan, where he finally resigned himself to his fate, gave away his goods on the poor, freed his slaves, and finally died in June of 1037. A solid work of scholarship that discusses Avicenna’s corpus and thought within a paradigm of Islamic Aristotelianism. The philosophy of Ibn Sina is essentially Aristotelian, like other Arab philosophers. 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